Tuesday, March 8, 2011

USM graduates employability: is the 76.6% rate something to shout about?

Last week's news report which mentioned USM has surpassed its 2010 Key Performance Indicators (KPI) target of graduates' employability is something we at USM can talk about.

The 2010 Tracer Study or Kajian Pengesanan Graduan 2010 by the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) had proved that in just 4 months, some 76.6% of USM students who graduated that year has been employed in various government agencies, the private sectors and international conglomerates, locally and abroad.


USM had earlier set the benchmark of its 2010 graduates employability rate at 75% and as far as this target is concerned it had been met. The questionnaires were usually given and the results collected during and after the graduates had received their scroll on convocation day (roughly 4-7 months after their final exams/results).

In 2007, the MoHE Tracer Study gave an overall result of 53.4% for the total IPTA graduates in Malaysia who were employed, while 29.7% were not.

In the same study (2007), Universiti Malaya graduates were tops with an employability rate of 97%. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia was in second place (84%), next was USM on third place (69%), UPM fourth (67%), UKM fifth (54%) and at sixth position is UUM (49%).

Source: PRODUCTIVITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA by Chan Lee Yee and Norehan Abdullah, Universiti Utara Malaysia (Kajian Malaysia, Jld. XXV, No. 2, Disember 2007), .

However, in the article the writers had sought that in order to achieve a high level of effectiveness, each university (IPTA) should achieve at least 90% of the graduates employability rate.

The writers gave the example of the 2007 Tracer Study results where they pointed out that the overall IPTS graduates were more productive than graduates of public universities

The multiple studies also proved that the Malaysian higher education system is less efficient and not able to reduce the problem of graduate unemployment. So, in conclusion the study found that the productivity of Malaysian higher education system is rather weak and more should be done in order to effectively reduce the unemployment rate.

Phew 90%...! it's a long way to go...!

Anyway, congratulations to USM graduates and all the people involved, especially USM's academic staff, for making this 75% employability target possible.

Maybe next year we can set a higher target at 90% as suggested by the study above.

Thursday, March 3, 2011

USM's Policy on Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)

According to a Vice Chancellor's Executive Committee meeting on 4 August 2009 (that's two years ago), the committee has approved the USM CCTV Policy including the establishment of a USM CCTV Committee.

The Occupational Health and Safety Unit (UKKP) was appointed as the secretariat to the USM CCTV Committee.

The USM CCTV policy can be accessed via the following link;

It's a pdf file and a very long read. For easy access I am reproducing it here in toto:

Universiti Sains Malaysia Policy on Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Monitoring, Recording, Role & Technical Standards

Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) is committed to providing a safe environment by integrating the best practices of crime prevention and policing with state of the art technology. A critical component of a comprehensive safety and security plan is Closed Circuit Televisions (CCTV) – a technology that can remotely monitor and record activity on campus.

The purpose of this Policy is to provide guidelines for the use of CCTV on the University property in a way that enhances safety and security, but also respects the expectation of reasonable privacy among members of the community. This Policy applies to all students, faculty, and staff within the University community1.

(I) General Principles

A. The purpose of CCTV monitoring is to deter crime and to protect the personal

safety and property of the University Community. Safety and security purposes

include, but are not limited to:

• Protection of individuals, including students, faculty, staff and visitors;

• Protection of University owned and/or operated property and buildings,

including building perimeters, entrances and exists, lobbies and corridors,

receiving docks, special storage areas, laboratories, and cashier locations;

• Verification of alarms and access control systems;

• Patrol of common areas and areas accessible to the public, including bus

stops, parking lots, public streets and pedestrian walks; and

• Investigation of criminal activity and serious disciplinary activity such as,

for example, sabotage of research projects, in accordance with this Policy.

Any diversion of security technologies for purposes other than the safety and

security purposes contemplated by this Policy is prohibited.

1 Uses of CCTV technology covered by University policies governing research with human subjects or animal

subjects are excluded from this Policy.

B. CCTV monitoring will be conducted in a professional, ethical and legal manner.

Personnel involved in monitoring will be appropriately trained and supervised in

the responsible use of this technology. Violations of the Code of Procedures set

forth under Section III below may result in disciplinary action consistent with the

rules and regulations governing employees of the University.

C. Information obtained through monitoring will only be released when approved by

the Vice Chancellor, or any of their designees according to procedures

established in this Policy.

D. Monitoring will be conducted in a manner consistent with all existing University

policies, including the Non-Discrimination Policy, the Sexual Harassment Policy,

and other relevant policies. Monitoring based on the characteristics and

classifications contained in the Non-Discrimination Policy (e.g., race, gender,

sexual orientation, national origin, disability, etc.) is strictly prohibited.

E. Monitoring shall be limited to uses that do not violate the reasonable expectation

to privacy

(i) Students have a greater expectation of privacy in their personal dormitory

rooms and in the lounges of dormitory facilities. Therefore, monitoring for

safety and security purposes will not be used in dormitory rooms and

lounges unless the Head of Security Department, in consultation and

approval from the University’s CCTV Committee, determines that a specific

safety/security risk exists. Monitoring of dormitory rooms shared by more

than one student or common areas is not permitted under this Policy

without authorization from all residents of the subject room.

(ii) Faculty and staff also have a greater expectation of privacy in lecture halls,

tutorial rooms and faculty lounge facilities. Therefore, monitoring for safety

and security purposes will not be used in lecture halls, tutorial rooms and

lounges unless the Head of Security Department, in consultation and

approval from the University’s CCTV Committee, determines that a specific

safety/security risk exists.

F. The existence of this Policy does not imply or guarantee that cameras will be

constantly monitored in real time.

G. All existing uses of video monitoring and recording shall be brought into

compliance with this policy within five (5) months of the approval of this Policy.

H. Five (5) months following the adoption of this Policy, the CCTV Committee shall

review the Policy and make recommendations for revisions, if any, to the Vice

Chancellor. The Vice Chancellor may amend this Policy at anytime provided that

notice is given to the University community by the posting of a revised Policy on

the University website and other official channels.

(II) Responsibilities

A. The Security Department in consultation with the University’s CCTV

Committee and Vice Chancellor are authorized to oversee the use of CCTV

monitoring for safety and security purposes at the University. All University

areas using CCTV monitoring are responsible for implementing this Policy.

B. The Vice Chancellor has the responsibility to authorize all long-term CCTV

monitoring recommended by the University’s CCTV Committee. The Head of

Security Department have the responsibility to authorize any temporary

installation as deemed necessary in connection with a criminal investigation,

for enhanced security for special events or as otherwise deemed necessary

to protect the safety and security of the University.

C. A CCTV Committee will be appointed by the Vice Chancellor. The CCTV

Committee will be made up of at least ten (10) members who will serve for a

period designated by the Vice Chancellor. The CCTV Committee shall

include the Head of Security Department; the Head of Occupational Safety

and Health Unit (UKKP); one representative from the Student Council

nominated by DVC Student Affairs & Development; one representative from

the Graduate School; at least one representative each from, Center for

Instructional Technology & Multimedia (PTPM), Centre for Knowledge,

Communication & Technology (PPKT); Development Department and at least

six (6) faculty and staff representing Academic and Administrative Staff

Associations of USM (PKAPUSM), General Staff Union of USM (KKAUSM),

Main Campus, Engineering Campus, Health Campus and Advance Medical &

Dental Institute (IPPT). In addition, the Legal Officer of the university will be

appointed as a member of this committee. The Vice Chancellor will appoint a


The CCTV Committee shall have responsibilities as described in this Policy

and such other responsibilities that may be assigned from time to time by the

Vice Chancellor. The Chair of the CCTV Committee may elect to convene a

meeting of CCTV Committee members for CCTV Committee action required

under this Policy. In lieu of a meeting, the Chair may choose to consult with

members by phone or internet. All members should be given the opportunity

to participate in such consultation. Any CCTV recommendation under this

Policy must include the input of the majority of CCTV Committee members.

The Committee is also strongly encouraged to seek input from administrators,

faculty, staff and students in areas affected by the use/proposed use of CCTV

and to consider such input before making a final recommendation.

D. All new Department installations will follow this Policy. Departments wishing

to install monitoring systems must submit a written request to the CCTV

Committee for approval. The written request should include the following


• a description of the safety or security issue warranting the installation of

CCTV monitoring systems;

• the number and proposed location of camera(s) to be installed;

• whether the location of cameras involve the recording of activity by

students, faculty, staff or the general public and to what extent;

• the names and titles of the individuals who will be responsible for

monitoring the cameras;

• the frequency by which the recordings will be reviewed (i.e. real time,

daily, randomly, when an alarm is sounded);

• the length of time recordings will be stored; and

• the location where recordings will be stored.

The CCTV Committee will consider the petition and make a recommendation

as to approval of the installation to the Vice Chancellor. The Committee’s

recommendation can propose an installation that is less or more extensive

than described in the original Department petition. The Vice Chancellor for

will make the final decision regarding the appropriateness of an installation

weighing the concerns of the Department making the requests and safety

and security of the entire community and the privacy interests of those whose

activity may be recorded.

E. Students, faculty and staff entering certain sensitive locations on campus

may have an increased concern for privacy or confidentiality. In order to

prevent a possible chilling effect at these locations, concerned persons

may petition the CCTV Committee to forgo the installation of a proposed

camera or for the removal of an existing camera. The petition should

identify the location/proposed location of the subject cameras and should

detail the basis for the request for removal. The CCTV Committee will

consider the petition and make a recommendation to the Vice Chancellor.

The Vice Chancellor will make the final decision regarding the

appropriateness of foregoing to install/removing camera(s), weighing the

concerns of the person(s) making the requests and the safety and security

of the entire community.

F. The Head of Security Department, in consultation with the Legal Officer,

will review and respond to subpoenas from outside law enforcement to

release recordings obtained through CCTV monitoring. Requests for CCTV

recordings made in connection with internal investigations of University

disciplinary matters will be forwarded to the CCTV Committee. The CCTV

Committee will review such requests and make recommendations to the

Vice Chancellor. The Vice Chancellor will make the final decision regarding

the appropriateness of releasing the recordings, weighing the concerns of

the disciplinary official/committee making the request against privacy

interests and safety and security of the entire community.

G. Any appeal of a decision by the Head of Security Department will be

reviewed by the Vice Chancellor who will render a decision. An appeal may

be taken to the Board of Directors to review the decision rendered by the

Vice Chancellor; the Board of Directors decision is final.

H. The CCTV Committee may audit any Department’s CCTV surveillance

operations, including recording storage and retention.

(III) Code of Procedures

A. All operators and supervisors involved in video surveillance will perform their

duties in accordance with this Policy.

B. The Security Department will limit camera positions and view of residential

housing in compliance with the Policy.

C. Surveillance/Monitoring center will be configured to prevent camera operators

tampering with or duplicating recorded information.

D. Recordings may be retained for a period not to exceed 45 days and will then

be erased, unless retained as part of a criminal investigation or court

proceeding (either civil or criminal), or other bona fide use as approved by the

Director of Security.

E. Recordings will be retained in a secure location with access by authorized

personnel only.

F. Camera control operators who view recordings must do so in the presence of

a supervisor to maintain the integrity of the recording.

G. Camera control operators will be trained in the technical, legal and ethical

parameters of appropriate camera use. Camera control operators will receive

a copy of this Policy and provide written acknowledgement that they have

read and understood its contents.


H. Camera control operators will not monitor individuals based on characteristics

of race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, or other classifications

protected by the Campus’s Non-Discrimination Policy. Camera control

operators will monitor based upon suspicious behavior, not individual


I. Camera control operators will NOT view private rooms or areas through


J. Camera control operators will not spot and continuously view people

becoming intimate in public areas.

K. Portable hidden cameras with recording equipment will only be used for

criminal investigation by the approval of the Head of Security Department for

Universiti Sains Malaysia.

(IV) Roles and Responsibilities

A. Security Department

1. The Security Department is fully responsible for safety and security on

campus. Thus, the Security Department is also responsible for overall operations

of the CCTV system on campus. The Security Department will coordinate and

manage all activities at the Surveillance, Monitoring & Recording Center


2. Surveillance, Monitoring & Recording Center (SMRC)

SMRC must be managed by skilled and trained personnel.

SMRC must be fully equipped in order for it to operate smoothly and


SMRC also must be equipped with high-tech large screen monitors for the

effective surveillance and monitoring.

SMRC will be connected to all the external CCTVs.

SMRC will also monitor CCTVs which will be strategically located at the

University’s four (4) main entrances and exits.

SMRC will be equipped with state of the art technology for video analytics.

SMRC will make certain that all security data will be controlled and stored

in a secured manner.

3. The surveillance of only all external CCTVs as well as CCTVs located at the

University’s four (4) main entrances and exits will be monitored and controlled by

the Security Department through SMRC. All other existing CCTVs installed at

departments, lecture halls and student hostels will continued to be managed by

the relevant departments responsible.

4. All application for the new CCTVs will be referred to the University’s CCTV


5. Appropriate job positions must be added to the Security Department for the

purpose of managing the CCTV system at SMRC. The proposed positions

include: (1) J29 (Pembantu Teknik Elektronik) and (2) F29 (Penolong Pegawai

Sistem Maklumat) .

B. Centre for Insructional Technology and Multimedia (PTPM)

PTPM will provide expert technical services regarding equipment and

specification. PTPM will also act as a resource center.

C. Centre for Knowledge, Communication and Technology (PPKT)

PPKT will provide expert technical services regarding software and ICT

materials. In addition PPKT will also be responsible for the network

system required to effectively operate the CCTV system on campus.

D. Development Department

Development Department will provide technical support, relevant

infrastructure. In addition, Jabatan Pembangunan will also act as the

resource center for issues related to buildings, grounds and general

facilities on campus.

E. Occupational Safety and Health Unit (UKKP)

UKKP will provide expert services and support regarding safety issues

related to this system.

In addition UKKP will also act as the secretariat for the University’s CCTV


UKKP will on a regular basis (quarterly) or on special request by the

CCTV Committee will audit the CCTV system at SMRC and other


(V) CCTV Technical Standards

1. Surveillance

CCTV locations – ”hotspots” will be identified by experts in University’s

CCTV Committee.

CCTV guidelines must be fully adhered when installing new cameras.

Privacy issues must be fully adhered to when installing new cameras.

2. VideoSystem

Existing CCTV system will be upgraded and modified relevant to the new


Analog system will be re-matched accordingly to able it be converted to

digital (convertible).

UPS system to manage temporary interruption and storing of data.

A more able/efficient new system.

Comments towards the camera specification are:-

Analog types of camera’s are relevant to be used even technology

changes with responds to the time.

PTZ camera’s will be equipped by assay technology characteristicsvideo

analytics and suitable to be fixed outside buildings which needs

more broader surveillance.

Static camera’s will be upgraded with better managing software.

IR camera’s are suitable to be fixed at locations that is less lights or dark

especially to capture images at night.

Image quality not lesser than 540 TVL

”Absorption protection” not lesser than 65 (IP > 65) for external PTZ.

Wide Lens – wide angle depends on the location and purpose.

Digital Video Recording (DVR) can function to record and display images

from camera at the real time.

DVR also can be used to store the data and images into Hard Disk Drive

(HDD) which has storage capacity up to 4000GB’. It also equiped with the

backup system either through USB, CD-RW and also Network.

DVR also can be configure through networks and it has TCP/IP protocol to

able the web based access.

Cabel used is the type of RG6 or RG59U suitable for video system.

If the distance between the camera and DVR is more 300meter than it has

to be connected with Transmitter/Receiver using cabel RJ45.

3. Vulnerability

Able to manage threat - jamming, laser lights or destroy – vandalism.

Cables and equipments must be closed and hidden.

4. Allocation

Enough allocation should be given to the development of the CCTV

system as well as to manage it accordingly and effectively.

(Approved by Vice Chancellor’s Executive Committee, August 2009)